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Similarly, it awakens the student to a world under constant transformation, to which they will hardly have ready answers. This disorder, in the logic of complex thinking, opens the possibility for a new order, meaning for new, more meaningful, more complex and of higher quality learning. It is also important that communicative skills are developed, as well as social and political skills, based on the insertion of the students in complex environments.

The current context motivated by the Web, hyper-media and collaborative networks among other resources , suggest new social and interaction styles, in addition to a re signification of the modus operandi of the professionals in general.

The possibilities of mostly mobile information and communication suggest dynamic, interactive and creative perspectives for learning. In this interactive platform, human beings can travel all over the planet without even leaving their physical location. Society ceases to be local and becomes global.

Under this approach, information and communication technologies allow the interactivity of society with the potential to change culture and to generally disseminate information in an irreversible process.

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Therefore, it is necessary that pedagogical proposals that incorporate mediating potentialities and that contemplate the technologies of information and communication are developed, in addition to the flexibility of the curriculum, creating spaces and times for student-teacher educational performance which are compatible with the current demands. The world is therefore a network of connections, interconnections, movement, energy flow and interrelations, which is under a constant process of change and transformation.

According to this logic, collaborative networks are configured as dynamic structures and are characterized as associative chains between individuals or groups, based on dialogical learning processes which are more adaptable, dynamic and consequently more flexible and adaptable to continuous changes.

In this paradoxical, highly dynamic and interactive movement, education needs to rethink its social function and gradually foster collaborative networks on a local and global level. In a moment of paradigmatic transition, the learning process cannot be supported by simplifying approaches in which vertical and hegemonic relationships prevail, but rather a complex vision based on overcoming the fragmented, linear and reductionist view of the universe. This way of proceeding assumes that phenomena are simple and easy to solve. According to the logic of complex thinking, learning is based on approaches that transcend the simplified look and seek to achieve the uniqueness and multidimensionality of the different actors and components involved in the process.

Teaching as a Professional Discipline eBook by Dr Geoffrey Squires - | Rakuten Kobo

Therefore, traditional teaching and learning models are nowadays increasingly questioned and provoked in light of the new references that are based on complex thinking. This is one of the references which enables construction of multidimensional knowledge through its circular and interactive character that goes beyond the sum of programmatic content. Complex thinking aims to overcome the naive consciousness to reach a critical consciousness, capable of taking in the world as a network of multiple relationships which are constantly changing.

In this logic, the teacher, as a mediator of the learning process, needs to be able to integrate, re-connect and instigate the knowledge construction in the singular and multidimensional fields, in addition to reconciling the individual and collective instances. Thus, both the teacher and the student will be subjects of meaningful, emancipatory and transformative learning. In order to develop quality education in Nursing and to consequently qualify health care, nurses need to critically think and reflect on their practice in order to solve complex problems.

Teaching as a Professional Discipline

In order to do so, it is indispensable that nurses enable negotiation tools and dialogical processes of action-reflection-action in their formative processes for an expanded and contextualized understanding of the social and health phenomena. From the perspective of complexity, quality education is a product and producer of thought reform. Therefore, teaching based on problematization and contextualization which are the bases of innovative and instigating methodologies is necessary.

Teaching that allows knowledge reconnection and the ability to understand, integrate, aggregate, and above all to overcome the fragmented, linear and reductionist vision of social phenomena.

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Therefore, it is necessary to replace linear thinking that separates and fragments by complex and multidimensional thinking, capable of reconnecting and systematizing knowledge, much more than reproducing it through programmatic content. Quality education is related to expanding systemic interactions and associations and to the ability to strengthen the dialogue with the complex and constantly changing reality. It is necessary to gradually transcend the simplification paradigm and to consider the intrinsic complexity that lies at the heart of science.

Complex thinking is the emphasis of quality education; it transcends the sovereignty of instituted order and conceives the dialogical relationship between order, disorder, and organization. In this relationship, the teacher assumes the role of learning mediator, which implies in valuing and potentiating human singularities, in addition to apprehending the phenomena in a multidimensional form.

It is necessary that the teacher is able to transcend old educational paradigms through problematizing their practice and basing it on new questions. In this sense, reflection allows for transposing personal limits imposed by instituted thought, and respectively adopting committed actions. In light of complex thinking, quality education refers to the practice conceived by the intricate relationship of threads that intersect in a plural and multidimensional knowledge network.

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Thus, the disciplines and specialized contents will continue to be important; however, their relevance lies in the ability to interconnect and intersect it with other knowledge. In order to achieve this process, it is necessary to transcend the simplification paradigm characterized by principles of disjunction, reduction and fragmentation, and to gradually consider the complexity of social phenomena. Therefore, the challenge of quality education remains in the light of complex references, as well as by adopting strategies that allow for legitimizing and incorporating scientific knowledge into the Nursing care process in practice.

Rev Educ. Rev Cid [Internet]. Our results confirm the need for integrating multiple sources of data when evaluating outcomes from TA PD and identifying the potential for bias and errant conclusions when relying on more narrow or unidimensional evaluation protocols. This study demonstrates the use of different kinds of data to inform the design and evaluation of TA PD.

For TAs, self-efficacy may explain the misalignment between their self-reported data and their classroom practice. As TAs experience the difficulties of teaching, their self-efficacy tends to decrease; therefore, it is possible that TAs underestimated their competencies in RPD1 due to their confrontation with the difficult realities of teaching Prieto and Altmaier, Future investigations into evaluations of TA PD need to include more than self-reported data.


While there are many different metrics or instruments for evaluating PD see Boulmetris and Dutwin, , we found Kirkpatrick's Four Levels Evaluation framework to be particularly conducive for providing robust and diverse data about TA outcomes Kirkpatrick, Kirkpatrick's framework serves to provide program evaluators with guidance about the types of data and instruments necessary for evaluating multiple dimensions of PD.

By including multiple data types, we have greater potential for understanding how various types of PD impact the learning and practice of TAs. While some programs provide innovative ways to prepare TAs see Gardner and Jones, , for a review , most are either stand-alone courses or seminars that are decontextualized from a teaching experience, or so highly context-specific that they are not transferable to other programs or disciplines.

In addition, many of these programs use limited methods for evaluating effectiveness. Concurrently, there is considerable attention to improving introductory college-level science courses NRC, ; AAAS, , many of which have laboratory sections taught by graduate TAs. If programs are serious about efforts to improve the quality of introductory college science courses, they must pay attention not only to what is happening in large class meetings i.

We predict that the framework for RPD outlined here is broadly applicable across a variety of institutions because of the following dimensions.

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We believe this framework is transferable to other institutions and can be implemented across diverse TA programs in which regular prep meetings can provide a context for sustained and iterative PD training activities see Supplemental Material. We strongly advocate the fishbowl approach for TA training and believe it can easily be implemented into an existing TA prep meeting see Supplemental Material by choosing a lead TA for each week and using a small group of students e.

A facilitator can ask TAs questions for procedural and metacognitive feedback during or after the fishbowl. Additionally, TAs can be organized into groups during prep meetings, with groups enabling support and discussion among peers who are all in the process of learning to teach. Currently, there is no standard evaluation protocol for TA PD; as such, we adapted Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework Kirkpatrick, to the specific context of an introductory biology lab course.

Again, we feel that a multilevel evaluation approach is highly transferable across programs and lends itself to customization to suit diverse needs. Because graduate TAs teach a significant portion of our undergraduates in STEM and many will go on to teach subsequent generations of scientists and citizens, providing and evaluating the quality of TA PD needs to become part of our broader effort to improve the preparation of graduate students for the changing face of higher education.

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Our model for reformed TA PD is grounded in theory about how people learn and uses data from multiple sources to test its effectiveness. Based on our experience designing, implementing, and evaluating reformed PD, teaching TAs in the same manner we hope they will teach was a step toward building a model of PD that helps TAs gain skills in learner-centered instruction. First and foremost, we thank the graduate TAs who participated in and contributed to this study. We also thank the director, staff, and undergraduate learning and research assistants associated with the Bio1 program for supporting this research.

This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author s. It is available to the public under an Attribution—Noncommercial—Share Alike 3. Sara A.